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Marking Text—Choosing Between Italics and Quotation Marks

May 12, 2014 by Fiction Editor Beth Hill
last modified January 11, 2015

An error in the use of italics or quotation marks—using one rather than the other or not using either when their use is required—is not likely a problem that will have an agent or publisher turning down your manuscript, especially if your manuscript isn’t bulging with other errors. Yet knowing when to use both italics and quotation marks is useful and important for writers. The cleaner the manuscript, the fewer problems it will be perceived to have. And when rules are followed, the manuscript will have consistency; if you don’t know the rules, it’s likely that you won’t make the same choices consistently throughout a story. And if you self-publish, when you’re the one doing the editing, you’ll definitely want to know how and when to use both italics and quotation marks and know how to choose between them.

To start off, I will point out that there is no need to underline anything in a novel manuscript. Writers used to underline text where they intended italics, but because it’s now so easy to see and find and identify italics, underlining is no longer necessary, not for fiction manuscripts.

Note: Underlining may be required for school or college writing projects or other purposes. I’m strictly addressing fiction manuscripts here.

Without underlining, the choices are italics, quotation marks, and unmarked or plain text.

Let’s start with the last option—plain text—first.


Plain Text

Not all text that seems to require italics or quotation marks actually does. Most words in your manuscript will be roman text—unchanged by italics—and, apart from dialogue, will not be enclosed by quotation marks. Yet sometimes writers are confused about italics and quotation marks, especially when dealing with named entities. A quick rule: Simple names need only be capitalized—no other marks are necessary.

This is one writing question that’s easy to overthink once you begin editing, but a name usually only needs to be capitalized; it typically doesn’t require italics or quotation marks. (There are exceptions, of course.)

Capitalize names of people, places, and things. This means that Bob, Mr. Smith, Grandma Elliott, and Fido are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks. The same is true for Disney World, the Grand Canyon, Edie’s Bistro, and the World Series. When a person’s title is paired with a name—Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Reverend Thomas—both name and title are capitalized. But when a title is not used as a name—the president is young, the pastor can sing—no capitalization is required.

Nouns are typically the words that you’ll capitalize, but not all nouns are capitalized. Capitalize named nouns. So Fido is capitalized, but dog is not; Aunt Margaret (used as a name) is capitalized, but my aunt is not; my aunt Margaret gets a mix of capitalization.

Brand names and trademarks are typically capitalized, but some have unusual capitalizations (iPad, eBay, TaylorMade, adidas). Refer to dictionaries and to company guidelines or Internet sources for correct capitalization and spelling. Note that home pages of websites may feature decorative text; look at pages with corporate details for correct information.

You may make a style decision and capitalize such words according to established rules, and that would be a valid decision. Yet a name is a name, and spelling or capitalizing it the way its creators intended may well be the better choice.

That’s it for most named people or things or places—most are capitalized but do not require italics or quotation marks. A quick rule: Names (of people, places, and things) need to be capitalized, but titles (of things) need both capitalization and either quotation marks or italics.

Items in the following categories need neither italics nor quotation marks (unless italics or quotation marks are an intrinsic part of the title). This is only a very short list, but most named nouns are treated similarly.

car manufacturers General Motors, Volkswagen, Toyota

car brands or divisions: Buick, Chevrolet

car names: Riviera, Touareg, Camry

restaurants: Chili’s, Sally’s Place, Chuck’s Rib House

scriptures and revered religious books: the Bible, Koran, the Book of Common Prayer

books of the Bible: Genesis, Acts, the Gospel according to Matthew

wars and battles: Korean War, Russian Revolution, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Hastings

companies: Coca-Cola, Amazon, Barclays, Nokia

product names: Coke, Kleenex, Oreo

shops: Dolly’s Delights, Macy’s, Coffee House

museums, schools and colleges: the High Museum, the Hermitage, Orchard Elementary School, the University of Notre Dame

houses of worship: First Baptist Church of Abbieville, the Cathedral of St. Philip, Temple Sinai, City Center Community Masjid

Note: There is much more to capitalization, yet that topic requires an article (or five) of its own. Look for such an article in the future. The Chicago Manual of Style has an in-depth chapter on capitalization; I recommend you search it for specifics.


Quotation Marks and Italics

Beyond capitalization, some  nouns are also distinguished by italics or quotation marks. Think in terms of titles here, but typically titles of things and not people.

So we’re talking book, movie, song, and TV show titles; titles of newspapers and magazines and titles of articles in those newspapers and magazines; titles of artwork and poems.

One odd category included here is vehicles.  Not brand names of vehicles but names of individual craft: spaceships, airships, ships, and trains.

But which titles get quotation marks and which get italics?

The general rule is that titles of works that are made up of smaller/shorter divisions are italicized, and the smaller divisions are put in quotation marks. This means a book title is italicized, and chapter titles (but not chapter numbers) are in quotation marks. A TV show title is italicized, but episode titles are in quotation marks. An album or CD title is put in italics, but the song titles are in quotation marks.

Note:  This rule for chapter titles in books is not referring to chapter titles of a manuscript itself, which are not put in quotation marks within the manuscript. Use quotation marks in your text if a character or narrator is thinking about or speaking a chapter title, not for your own chapter titles.

Quotation marks and italics are both also used for other purposes in fiction. For example, we typically use italics when we use a word as a word.

My stylist always says rebound when he means rebond.

I counted only half a dozen ums in the chairman’s speech. (Note that the s making um plural is not italicized.)

Since a list is quick and easy to read, let’s simply list categories for both italics and quotation marks.

Barring exceptions, items from the categories should be italicized or put in quotation marks, as indicated, in your stories.


Use italics for

Titles: Titles of specific types of works are italicized. This is true for both narration and dialogue.


TV shows

radio shows



operas and ballets

long poems

long musical pieces (such as symphonies)




works of art (paintings, sculptures, photographs)




blogs (but not websites in general, which are only capitalized)

Odds and Ends: Titles of cartoons and comic strips (Peanuts, Calvin and Hobbes, Pearls Before Swine) are italicized. Exhibitions at small venues (such as a museum) are italicized (BODIES . . . The Exhibition) but fairs and other major exhibitions (the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition) are only capitalized.

Examples: To Kill a Mockingbird (book), Citizen Kane (movie), A Prairie Home Companion (radio show), La bohème (opera), Paradise Lost (long poem), Rhapsody in Blue (long musical piece), Washington Post (newspaper), Car and Driver (magazine), Starry Night (painting), The Age of Reason (pamphlet), This American Life (podcast), The Editor’s Blog (blog)

Exception: Generic titles of musical works are not italicized. This includes those named by number (op. 3 or no. 5) or by key (Nocturne in B Major) and those simply named for the musical form (Requiem or Overture). If names and generic titles are combined, italicize only the name, not the generic title.

Exception: Titles of artwork dating from antiquity whose creators are unknown are not italicized. (the Venus de Milo or the Seated Scribe)

Ship names:  names of ships on water, in space, in the air

Examples: HMS Illustrious, USS Nimitz, space shuttle Endeavor, Hindenburg, Spruce Goose

Notes: 1. The abbreviations for Her Majesty’s ship (HMS) and United States ship (USS) are not italicized.

2. The current recommendation of The Chicago Manual of Style is to not italicize train names. CMOS may be differentiating between physical ships with individual names and railroad route names, which is typically what is named when we think of trains; the specific grouping of train cars may not be named and may actually change from one trip to another. Locomotives, however, may have names. If they do, you would be safe to italicize that name.

While I understand this reasoning, I see no problem with italicizing a train’s (or a train route’s) commonly known name—Trans-Siberian Express, Royal Scotsman, California Zephyr—as writers have done in the past. This is strictly a personal opinion.

3. The definite article is unnecessary with ship names—they are names and not titles. So Yorktown rather than the Yorktown. It’s likely that characters with military backgrounds would follow this rule, but many civilians may not. If your character would say the Yorktown, then include the article.

Words as words: As already noted, words used as words are usually italicized. This helps forestall confusion when these words are not used in the usual manner.

Examples: The word haberdashery has gone out of style.

Edith wasn’t sure what lugubrious meant, but it sounded slimy to her.

Letters as letters: Letters referred to as letters are italicized.

Examples: The i in my name is silent.

On the faded treasure map, an X actually did mark the spot.

All the men in his hometown have at least three s’s in their names.

Notes: 1. Only the letter itself is italicized for plurals. So we have s’s, capital Ls, and a dozen m’s. (The apostrophe and concluding s are not italicized.)

2. An apostrophe is used for the plurals (lowercase letters only) to prevent confusion or the misreading of letters as words; a’s rather than as and i’s rather than is.

3. Familiar phrases including p’s and q’s and dot your i’s and cross your t’s do not require italics. (They are italicized here because I’m using them as words, not for their meaning.)

4. Letters for school grades are not italicized, though they are capitalized.

Sound words: Italicize words that stand in for sounds or reproduce sounds that characters and readers hear.

Examples: The whomp-whomp of helicopter blades drowned out her frail voice.

An annoying bzzz woke him.

C-r-rack! Something heavy—someone heavy—fell through the rotted floorboards.

Foreign words: Uncommon or unfamiliar foreign words are italicized the first time they are used in a story. After that, roman type is sufficient. Foreign-language words familiar to most readers do not need italics. Proper names and places in foreign languages are never italicized.

Examples: The words amigo, muchocoup d’état, risqué, nyet, and others like them are common enough that you wouldn’t need to italicize them in fiction. (I italicized them because in my example they are words used as words.)

“Use caution, my dear. That pretty flower you like so much is velenoso. It slows the heart.”

It was something my grandmother always said to me. Sie sind mein kostbares kleines Mädchen.

Building sites on the Potsdamer Platz went for a lot of money once the Berlin Wall came down.

Emphasis: Use italics to emphasize a word or part of a word. Yet don’t overdo. A character who emphasizes words all the time may sound odd. And the italics may annoy your readers.

Examples: I wanted a new dress, but I needed new shoes.

She quickly said, “It’s not what you think.”

“Sal invited everyone to the party at his uncle’s beach house. And I mean every single student from his school.”

Something—someone—shattered all the street lights.

Character thoughts: Character thoughts can be expressed in multiple ways; italics is one of those ways. (But it isn’t the only way and may not be the best way. See “How to Punctuate Character Thoughts” for details.)

Example: I expected more from her, he thought. But he shouldn’t have.


Use quotation marks for

Titles:  As is done with titles and italics, titles of specific types of works are put inside quotation marks. This is true for both narration and dialogue.

book chapters (named, not numbered, chapters)

TV show episodes

radio show episodes


short stories

short poems (most poems)

newspaper, magazine, and journal articles

blog articles

podcast episodes

unpublished works (dissertations, manuscripts in collections)

Odds and Ends: Signs (and other notices) are typically not put in quotation marks or italicized, though they are capitalized—The back lot was marked with No Parking signs. They don’t even require hyphens for compounds—The gardener was putting up Do Not Walk on the Grass signs. However, long signs (think sentence length or longer) are put in quotation marks and not capitalized. Consider them as quotations—Did you see the handwritten sign? “Take your shoes off, line them up at the door, and walk without speaking to the second door on the left.”

The same rule applies for mottoes and maxims. An example: To Protect and Serve was the department’s old motto. Now it’s “Cover your tracks, lie if you get caught, blame your behavior on drugs, and vilify the victim.”

Examples: They read through “The Laurence Boy” in one sitting. (chapter three of Little Women)

He said he thought it was “The One With Phoebe’s Cookies.” (an episode of Friends)

My mother suggested we both read “The Gift of the Magi.” (short story)

The Princess Bride—Storytelling Done Right” was written in two hours. (blog article)

Exception: Titles of regular columns in newspapers and magazines are not put in quotation marks (Dear Abby, At Wit’s End).

Dialogue: Enclose the spoken words of direct dialogue (not the dialogue tags or action beats) between opening and closing quotation marks. Do not use quotation marks for indirect dialogue.

Exception: When dialogue continues into a new paragraph, do not include a closing quotation mark at the end of the first paragraph; use the closing quotation mark only at the end of the spoken words. (If dialogue continues uninterrupted for several paragraphs, you will have a number of opening quotation marks but only one closing quotation mark.)

Examples: “I told you I loved you. You never believed me.”

“I told you I was there,” he said. But I never believed him.

“He tried,” I said, waving my fingers, “but he failed.”

“My dog ate the first page”—Billy pointed at Dexter Blue—“but I saved the rest.”

Exception Example: “I needed to do it, but I just couldn’t. And then you know what happened—Bing threw his knife and I ducked and he hit the minister’s wife. And then pandemonium broke out, everyone running every which way. It was madness.

“And after that, we raced out before the cops could get there.”

Notes: 1. American English (AmE) always uses double quotation marks for dialogue. If you have a quotation within dialogue, the inner quotation gets single quotation marks.

2. British English (BrE) allows for either single or double quotation marks, with the reverse for quotes inside other quotes or dialogue.

Words used in a nonstandard manner or as sarcasm, irony, or mockery: Use quotation marks to point out irony or words used in an unusual way, perhaps as slang or mockery. Most slang wouldn’t need to be put in quotation marks, but words unfamiliar to a character could be put in quotation marks. Always use double quotation marks for AmE and typically use singles for BrE (doubles are acceptable).

Example: Yeah, I guess he was on time. If three hours late is “on time” in his book.

Andy said his brother “skived off” two days this week. I didn’t tell him I had to check the Internet to figure out what he meant.

Made-up words or new words: Use quotation marks for the first use of made-up words. After that, no special punctuation is necessary.

Example: He’s a “rattlescallion,” a cross between a rapscallion and a snake.

Words as words: We often use italics for words used as words, but we can also use quotation marks.

Example: He used “I” all the time, as if his opinion carried more weight than anyone else’s.


When you’re deciding between italics and quotation marks, always remember the rules of clarity and consistency: make it clear for the reader and be consistent throughout the story. If you have to make a choice that doesn’t fit a rule or you choose to flout a rule, do so on purpose and do so each time the circumstances are the same. Include unusual words or special treatment of words in your style sheet so everyone dealing with your manuscript works from the same foundation.

Rewrite any wording that is likely to confuse the reader or that can be read multiple ways. There’s always a way to clear up confusing phrasing, often more than one way. Reduce distracting punctuation and italics when you can, but use both quotation marks and italics when necessary.

Put writing rules to work for your stories.


This article is a long one, but I hope it proves useful. Let me know if I omitted a category you wondered about.


Tags: , ,     Posted in: Grammar & Punctuation

133 Responses to “Marking Text—Choosing Between Italics and Quotation Marks”

  1. EXCELLENT and timely tips. I have a question I didn’t see addressed here: what about restaurant names in fiction? Italicized the first time and then roman font after? Italicized with every usage? I’d love to know! Thank you.

    • Heather, restaurants are just names, and so they are only capitalized—no italics on any use. (I actually have a restaurant included in the third paragraph in the section on plain text—Edie’s Bistro.)

      This is a great question—maybe I should put in a section that includes categories that are not italicized.

      • Thank you so much! That clears things up for the book I’m about to release. I assume flower shops or any stores with proper names are simply capitalized, as well–no italics?

        • You’re exactly right, just capitalized. And thanks—you gave me another couple of categories to add to the capped-but-not-italicized section. Keep asking—it’s great to get all that info out there in one place.

          • Avoid italics like the plague. They are hard to read and slow down your story. Once you get rid of them, you will realize how bad they are.

            Words from a publisher:
            December 28, 2011
            Some of you will send me examples of good writers who use italics for thoughts. Good writers can do anything. It is true. But a good writer does not need to use italics for thoughts. A good editor should help him/her get rid of them. I do. A good writer doesn’t even need to use italics for emphasis very often – which makes them more effective when s/he does.

  2. Great post. This will answer a lot of questions that come up in our critique group. I’ll be posting the link to this on my blog. Thanks!

  3. I would add:
    Don’t use italics at all–except for the titles of books. They are hard to read and slow the reader down. Don’t use semicolons. They are HATED by many editors. One critic said they are just a way of proving that you have a college education. Ha! Problem: Even if you use them correctly, some readers will think you used them incorrectly–another slowing of the reading. In my opinion, two single sentences are stronger.

    Also, have at least ten proofreaders. I had over twenty for “Finding Sagrado,” and whatever its merits, the writing is clean and polished, thanks to my readers and critics.

    Here’s my website: I’m offering a free pdf download to anyone who will read and review it (any rating on the review. It doesn’t matter. Just be honest).

    • Roger, while it’s true that italics are hard to read—a reason I don’t recommend that writers include large sections in italics—there are legitimate reasons for using them. The same is true for semicolons. Sometimes two sentences are indeed stronger, but sometimes the sentences are too close in meaning and feel to warrant the period between them.

      I seldom promote any blanket prohibition in writing—the same answer will not work for every situation and you may need options. You don’t want to limit yourself simply because of what others have said or for reasons that worked or didn’t work for them. Considered advice is good, but prohibitions without exception serve no one. Any writer can make almost anything work and work well.

      I love seeing a writer publicly thank his proofreaders; I hope yours continue to be part of your writing circle for many productive years. Proofreaders and beta readers are worth their weight in gold or chocolate.

      Thank you for giving us something to think about.

      • That’s true, and in the last novel I read–“The Ghosts of Belfast” by Stuart Nevill I saw some semicolons. Ha! I guess I’m brainwashed against them. I didn’t like them. I particularly hate italics for thoughts. There’s no need.

        Why did he look at me that way, she thought.
        I had over a hundred semicolons and exclamation points. I took out all the semicolons and left only a handful of exclamation points–only for screams.
        “Look out!” he yelled.

        It’s funny how much heat is generated in a discussion of grammar. Ha!

  4. Feel free to write me:
    farcity101 at
    if you would like me to send you the pdf file.

  5. Alex Hurst says:

    Thank you so much for all of this! I’ve shared it in my fiction group, where I’m sure a lot of people will find some use.

    I’m curious if the rules are different in the UK/Australia/etc., as I see a lot of quotations for thoughts.

    Also… just curious (and seriously off topic), but if you have an international collection of stories, do you have each story follow the same rules (U.S., let’s say, with double quotes instead of single, U.S. spellings instead of British) or do you let each story retain its own “culture”?

    • Alex, I’ve also seen writers use quotation marks for thoughts, both in AmE and BrE, but I know of no standard source or authority that recommends that quotation marks be used this way. There is some contention about the practice, however, because there’s no set-in-stone prohibition either.

      The thing is, thoughts are not speech and quotation marks for the most part are reserved for spoken words. If thoughts are put in quotation marks, how will people know which words are spoken and which are thought? Then you have to add even more dialogue tags and thought tags.

      Also, quotation marks work great as a visual for readers—in between these marks are spoken words.

      Also, the trend in today’s writing is away from overuse of punctuation. Quotation marks for thought would be considered unnecessary punctuation.

      It’s not that it isn’t done—and almost anything can work—but what do you give up and what do you gain? Is it worth a fight to argue (with agents and publishers) about quotation marks for thoughts when there are other legitimate and quite recognizable ways to convey thoughts?

      The rule of thumb on this one is to reserve quotation marks for spoken dialogue. As far as I can tell, that’s true for both BrE and AmE.


      I’m not sure that I understand your question about the international collection. International meaning the stories have already been published in different countries and they are now being brought together into one book? If that’s your question, I’m guessing you have two options. You could let books stand as they were written—which would give readers a taste of other cultures and styles—or you could edit for the country in which the new combined volume will be published.

      If the books were published before or if they weren’t but you want to promote the fact that writers are from different parts of the world, I would let existing spelling and word choices stand. Punctuation is a different issue. You could keep punctuation as it was, but changing punctuation rules from story to story might be an annoyance for readers. Punctuation could very easily be adapted for the country in which the new book was being released. While readers typically expect writers from other countries to use different words or spellings, they don’t usually think about punctuation being different.

      This doesn’t mean you’d have to change the punctuation in some of the stories, but the option is worth considering.

      I don’t know that there is any hard rule about this issue. A publisher would have an opinion and/or guidelines, but beyond that, for those publishing their own books, the choice is theirs.

      If that’s not what you were asking about, let me know.

  6. Mira Prabhu says:

    Hello Beth — just want to thank you for yet another well-written and extremely useful post. I live in India and am “retired”, which means I cannot afford western editorial rates — so this kind of material/guide is vital to my novel writing. Thanks and look forward to more…

    • Mira, I wish you the best of success with your writing. Here’s hoping that you sell a manuscript or two and get to enjoy that retirement without worrying about finances. I’m so glad the article was a useful one.

      • Mira Prabhu says:

        Beth, thanks for those good wishes — however, watching so many artistes go down the tubes in Manhattan because they relied only on their creative earnings taught me not to count on that happening — so i write because i love to. You must be very busy, i know, but i would love to send you an e-version of the metaphysical novel (set in ancient India – Whip of the Wild God–A Novel of Tantra in Ancient India) for free if you would care to go through it. It has been getting 5 star reviews, but alas, as you must know, you cannot get rich on the 3% profit on sales that Amazon print gives you…

  7. Here is an example from my novel “Finding Sagrado” where italics are needed: Was a strong like the same as love?”

    I put “like” in italics to make the sentence absolutely clear. I didn’t want it
    to read:
    “Was a strong like…” Without the italics, a reader might go back and think there is a typo.

  8. Peter Pollak says:

    Excellent column, Beth. It never hurts to be reminded of the subtleties of our language because as you say, it’s best to eliminate opportunities for an agent or editor to question the writer’s competence.

    • I agree, Peter. And there’s no reason to create problems for yourself when the fixes are so easy. Some areas of writing aren’t quite as easy to handle, but the ones that are fairly simple to deal with can be mastered by all writers.

      • One great way to fix an awkward paragraph is to delete it. Ha! The reader doesn’t know what was deleted. Maybe you were trying to put too much in the paragraph? Ask yourself if the paragraph is really needed.

  9. Kim Penfold says:

    My characters listen to and sing along with a few songs in my novel. So if I am mentioning a song by Bruce Springstein. I should write it as; Dandcing In The Dark. Not; ”Dancing in the Dark.” Italic or not?

    Also, when they are singing along, I have written it all in capitals. Eg;
    Is this wrong?

    • Kim, song titles do get quotation marks, so “Dancing in the Dark” is correct. No italics.

      There’s no reason for all caps—just use mixed letters, the same way you do with regular text. The words of songs are still characters speaking.

      However, there are restrictions for copyrighted text. So unless you get permission from Bruce Springsteen to use his words, readers shouldn’t be heard singing his words. While it’s usually okay to quote a line or two from a book or movie, single lines from songs and poems make up a significant part of the song or poem, and the copyright holder may be ticked off by your use of his or her words.

      Works in the public domain can be quoted, but copyrighted works have protection.

      You can mention the name of a song or poem, but you don’t want to use the text. A workaround is to create a song or poem of your own.

      I’m working on an article concerning this issue that I hope to get up soon.

      Does that answer your questions?

      • Kim Penfold says:

        Thanks. Just re read. Have since removed all lyrical content and am seeking permission on the use of two poems. I use … a lot when a conversation is interrupted or of someone is struggling to say something. I am consistent through out, is this a death nail?

        • Kim, I’ve finally gotten around to putting together an article on using lyrics and poems in novels. I hope to have it up today or tomorrow, so good timing with your comment.

          Use the ellipsis when dialogue trails off, the em dash when it is cut off. Both are legitimate punctuation marks, but they’re unusual enough to be noticed if they’re used too often. Actually, you typically don’t want to use any piece of punctuation or sentence structure or word too often. Think in terms of consistency, yes, but variety as well.

          If you know you use the ellipsis a lot, I suggest that you do a search for it and then make changes if you find it used too often.

          Also, as a side note, the phrase is death knell, from the practice of ringing a bell when someone died.

          • Kim Penfold says:

            Thanks. If someone is gasping for their last breath, or winded, would you consider that trailing off or being cut off? The ” for a song title, is it okay to use single’ to differentiate from speech or is this old school?

          • Kim, I can’t nest a reply to your last comment, so I hope you find this okay.

            I’d definitely use the ellipsis for gasping for breath and probably for being winded, but with being winded, someone’s breath could be completely cut off. If so, I’d go with the dash.

            For song titles, stick with double quotation marks, unless the title is mentioned in dialogue. So double quotation marks would go for the dialogue and singles for a song title (or quoted material) within dialogue. (BrE can use the reverse—single quotation marks for dialogue and doubles for a song title or quoted material within the dialogue.)

          • Kim Penfold says:

            so space …”is that ame? or no space…
            and sentence with – in it, is that also ame? Sorry for the confusion. you said it depends on if it is ame or bre but didn’t clarify.

            Beth’s answer

            For the ellipsis in American English, there are spaces between the ellipsis points, so if I needed an ellipsis in AmE, I would write . . . this. (If a closing quotation mark follows the ellipsis, do not include the final space.) Use nonbreaking spaces in Word so the ellipsis doesn’t break on a line break.

            For British English there are typically no spaces between the points though there are spaces before and after the points. In BrE I’d use … this.

            The sentence with the spaces surrounding the dash is BrE. No spaces for either punctuation mark in AmE (given the examples we’ve looked at).

  10. sina says:

    love your long technical posts. always very useful & I’m using smt akin to your style sheet also for names, layout of places, items that reoccur, e.g. the cars (model, colour, general condition, etc). cheers!

  11. How do I treat a program that is held here at our large hospital?
    The program is called ( made up )
    We want you to get better soon
    sponsored by the department of Internal Medicine.
    Do I put the program name in quotation marks, italic or plain text?

    Thanks !!

    • Beverly, I would say that typically you’d put the name of the program in caps—Our cutting-edge program—We Want You to Get Better Soon—is sponsored by the department of Internal Medicine.

      Yet, you may have some options. Will this line be in a letter to donors? In e-mails to staff? In public promotional materials?

      While you wouldn’t use anything else if you were writing fiction, you may want to consider italics for real-world purposes. You probably want the text to stand out, and mixed caps and italics would be useful for such a purpose. That or a different font (a change in style or in color).

      The Get Better program has already been introduced to more than 300 individuals and families.

      Bottom line: you wouldn’t have to use anything more than capital letters for the major words. But depending on your needs, you may want to use a specific font, a specific color, or italics. You don’t want the words blending in with the surrounding text in promotional materials—you want readers to see the program name as the program name.

      Does that help?

  12. Deborah says:

    Thank you for all the information you provide in the blog. Will you please clarify how the name of a house (i.e., an historic residence) is treated? Just capitals? Italics? Quotation marks? Thanks so much.

  13. Sue says:

    If (in a novel) someone is reading a passage to another person and this is in italics, should the italics (quote from newspaper) also have quotation marks?

  14. Corene says:

    How do you treat a book title that is shortened? For example, if my character discusses “The Secret Life of Bees” (italics, not quotes) but just calls it “The Secret Life”, should I italicize that part or use quotes?

    Thank you!

  15. I’m just about to publish my first novel, The Art of Peeling an Orange, on Amazon Kindle, and I encountered a small “disaster.”
    I can convert my pages file into ePub and upload to amazon without a problem, but then I lose my formatting. ie: chapter heads all run together and don’t start on a new page. It is an esthetic problem and my book doesn’t look professional.
    If I upload a word.doc, the above issue is solved, but I lose my italics, therefore some meaning and context.
    Does anyone have a solution?
    Please help. New author drinking herself to death over this…

  16. Tanis says:

    Would you italicize certain interjections as sounds? For example, ahem, hmm, or humph?

  17. Katherine says:

    First of all, thanks for sharing all your useful information! By far the most informative reading I’ve done about quotation marks and italics.

    I have two questions:
    1. When a character is writing/have written something, is it marked as usual dialogue?
    For example,
    He left a note on the table (“Out for a walk”).
    He left a note on the table (‘Out for a walk’).
    Or should it get italics?
    He wrote, “Out for a walk” on the note.
    He wrote, ‘Out for a walk’ on the note.
    I’m wondering about the comma there as well. As far as I’m concerned, there’s always a comma before dialogue in the middle of a sentence, but is it the same in this situation?

    2. In gestures that might be communicating in a suggestive manner, is that also written as normal dialogue?
    For example,
    He looked at her in a way that clearly said, “I’m not giving up on you.”

    Thanks in advance!

  18. Erica says:

    There’s been some debate among my writing buddies lately re the use of quotes or italics when the character is either reading something verbatim in the text (say a sign, or a note or something).

    The sign read, “Kingsbridge 2 miles.”


    The sign read, Kingsbridge 2 miles.

    Also, if a character is remembering something she’d read or heard said at some time in the past verbatim, should it be italicized like internal dialog, or quoted? Or does it depend on how it’s presented? Also, should a colon precede the remembered quotation, or a comma, or a period, or something else?

    For example, how to present the words in a case like this:

    She could see the pages of that old book, as if it were in front of her right now. Work hard but don’t be obsessive.

  19. Melissa says:

    “This rule for chapter titles in books is not referring to chapter titles of a manuscript itself, which are not put in quotation marks within the manuscript. Use quotation marks in your text if a character or narrator is thinking about or speaking a chapter title, not for your own chapter titles.”

    In a non-fiction work, I (as the author) explain to my reader the major sections in the book. Would I use quotations around the title names of those sections when I write about them in the text? For instance, assuming the use of a colon is correct – would this be the correct way to include this text? Part Two: “Title of Major Section”

    • Yes, Melissa, you’re referring to real sections (or chapters) within the text, and putting those references into quotation marks is exactly what you’d want to do. And the colon is good as well. You could do the same setup for chapters—Chapter Five: “The Hope Within Us All”

      Your chapters, sections, and parts get quotation marks just as chapters, sections, and parts of other books would get quotation marks.

      For anyone else reading this, my note was a reference to chapter titles of the manuscript, those on the first page of every chapter. Those would not get quotation marks in the manuscript itself.

  20. Glenda Manus says:

    I have an odd question about the use of quotation marks. This is my third novel in a series (Southern fiction). In my character’s dialog which is in quotation marks, he is talking and also quoting something his wife said. Do I use a quote within a quote? Here’s the example.
    ” Macie was bound and determined to find out which one of her hens wasn’t laying and one day she came in and said to me, ‘I think it’s that funny looking chicken. I’ve seen every chicken go into the hen house today except her.’ I went out to see what all the fuss was about and lo and behold, that hen was a rooster.”

    • Yes, Glenda. This is exactly the time you want to use a quote within a quote.

      • Kim Penfold says:

        What is BRE? If I write. “But I love the Bruce Springsteen song “Dancing in the Dark,””she said – it look weird. I would think it would be”But I like the song ‘Dancing in the Dark’ by Bruce Springsteen,” she said. ?????

        • Kim, BrE is British English; AmE is American English.

          If someone is speaking and then quoting someone else (or naming something that gets quotation marks), the quotation marks switch from doubles to singles (or in BrE, they can change from singles to doubles). Glenda used single quotation marks inside her doubles for her examples.

          Your example would work either of the ways you pointed out. Note the space between the single and double quotation marks.

          “But I love the Bruce Springsteen song ‘Dancing in the Dark,’ ” she said.

          ”But I like the song ‘Dancing in the Dark’ by Bruce Springsteen,” she said.

          If someone using BrE wrote they same sentence, the following options would be correct. Note the comma outside the double quotation mark after dark.

          ‘But I love the Bruce Springsteen song “Dancing in the Dark”, ‘ she said.

          ‘But I like the song “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen,’ she said.

          Does this make sense? If I’ve confused you, let me know where I lost you.

          • Kim Penfold says:

            Thanks so much, you are very prompt. Is a poem in dialogue italicized? You probably covered this in your article, I will read it soon. Am in the middle of applying for a grant for future publication.

          • Kim Penfold says:

            Why when I make a comment why does blank out. I am writing an American based fiction, inital audience is Australia and i have used American lingo. Mom and realize etc. Is this a death knell?

  21. Kim, yes, do read the article about lyrics and poetry in fiction. You may find you won’t quote any long sections of text once you consider some of the points in the article. In general, however, you wouldn’t need to use italics to quote a poem. If someone is reading it aloud, you could use quotation marks. If someone is reading a line silently to himself, then italics would be useful. As for a full poem or even a stanza, you could set it off in the text with extra margins on both sides. But, still, read the article. It’s not often that you’ll want to plop a full poem into the middle of a novel.

    I’m not sure what’s blanking out. Let me know more if you’re still having problems.

    If you’ve got Americans in a story, have them use AmE for the words they think and speak, so mom rather then mum is appropriate. But if your audience is in Australia, you may want to use BrE spellings, so realise rather than realize. Let the characters’ language fit them, but let the story’s grammar and punctuation fit your audience.

    • Kim Penfold says:

      What about using capital when someone is shouting? “I don’t want your whisky dick!”
      “I DON’T WANT YOUR WHISKY DICK!” I was doing this a lot, but have since stopped.
      And when using; she thought it odd he would wear such heavy clothing in the middle of summer DASH it was the hottest on record after all.
      Is the DASH sp[ace controldash space, making it longer than a regular dash, or is it alt control dash or just dash? Plus, is afteralll, after-all? And when I use … I space then … Should it be; matter…” His voice trailed off at the sight of her taking off her clothes. OR matter…” his voice trailed off at the sight of her bla bla ???
      I know, I am dumb, but your advice is paramount. How do you get paid?

      • Kim Penfold says:

        If I submit a sample for quote on editing, you require a chapter and page 250, does that mean an average of 250 words per page? Please read the above if you get time.

        • Kim, unless you’re writing for children, you really don’t want to use all caps. Shouting is identified through the words and an exclamation point, if one is truly necessary. Definitely don’t use all caps for regular shouting.

          But could you use a few instances of all caps under certain conditions? You could. But I’d limit them to once or twice over the course of a manuscript. And for only one or two words at a time, not long sentences. This is something you might have to play by ear, but the fewer words with all caps, the stronger the impact will be when you actually use all caps.

          Maybe a character has been taken over by a demon and speaks with a powerful demon voice—that might be the time you could get away with all caps.


          Dash—The dash you’re referring to in American English is an em dash. In MS Word you can insert it by holding the Alt key and typing 0151 on the numeric keypad (or Alt-Ctrl-minus). There are other ways of inserting the em dash as well. And there are no spaces. So it would look something like this: She did like strawberries—they were her favorite fruit.

          For British English, the en dash is often used instead. It is surrounded by spaces. The en dash is shorter than an em dash (but still longer than a hyphen). The MS Word shortcut is Alt 0150 (or Ctrl minus). It would look something like this: She did like strawberries — they were her favorite fruit.

          After all is spelled after all.


          The spaces with an ellipsis also depends on whether you’re using AmE or BrE. But as for what follows, in your example, capitalize the first word that follows the quotation mark because you’re beginning a new sentence.


          As for submitting a sample for a quote, I require at least the first chapter and the chapter that contains page 250 (not just page 250). In other words, I’m looking for a chapter from the middle of the book. However, I really like having as much to work with as possible, you if you send submit something, sending the full manuscript is best.

  22. Darien says:

    Hi Beth,

    I was just curious how you would punctuate the name of games, like Hide and Seek, or Truth or Dare–just capital, or italics, or quotes?

    Thanks so much for all your advice!!! You’re the best!

    • Darien, this is going to be one of those “it depends” answers. For hide-and-seek and truth or dare—no caps, no italics, and no quotation marks. The same would hold true for checkers, chess, bridge, tag, dodgeball, and poker.

      Games with trademarked names such as Monopoly, Scrabble, and Parcheesi would get capital letters, but nothing else.

      For video games, capitalize initial letters of each word. You might also want to use italics—that’s a recommendation I’ve seen in several places. If you use italics, that’s treating the game like a book or album. For this one, you have some leeway—just be consistent.

      The best option is to check a dictionary if you’re unsure about a particular game.

      A great question—I’m sure others have wondered too.

  23. irene says:

    If you’re grandmother tells you, “you are my precious little girl.” In German she’d say, “Du bist mein kostbares kleines Maedchen.”

  24. Sharon says:

    I found these tips helpful, but I was curious about another instance. What about the name of a program? Not a computer program (though I didn’t see that on there and don’t know if the rule would be the same or different), but something like “We are considering withdrawing funding from the Excellence in Education program”. Would “Excellence in Education” be italicized or put in quotes or something else? Thanks!

    • Sharon, I’ve never seen italics or quotation marks recommended for program names, and I just did another quick search to be sure. Capital letters should be sufficient.

      Computer programs are also capped but not italicized. The titles of computer games can be italicized, but apparently that one is not set in stone. Make a choice and then be consistent.

  25. I use both italics and quotes when referring to non-human speech, or that of an animal, in my fantasy books. It helps to differentiate between that of ordinary speaking and that of an entity or spirit.

    • Dawn, I’m in agreement with trying anything that woks. But how do you differentiate between thoughts in quotes and dialogue in quotes? Can readers easily tell the difference? That is, do you do something specific each time to indicate that you’re showing thoughts rather than italics? Other writers might want to try whatever it is that you’re doing.

  26. Amy says:

    Thank you for a great article! My student wrote a fiction story and the name for one of the agencies in her story is “Happily ever after”. Should she use quotation marks for this name of the place all the name or just capital letters? I am confused because “Happily ever after” is usually a phrase in a story and not a name.

    • Amy, no quotation marks are necessary. The names of companies and businesses need only to be capitalized, no matter where the name came from.

      • Kim Penfold says:

        I have written a novel in American English. How do I write am and pm? I have used a lot of poetry and when I have a character about to recite I go, cleared his throat then began:
        “I Had Something To Say
        By Matt Somers.

        Is the [:] correct? or is it; or just, ? also when writing ages thirty-three, is the – correct?
        Could you give me an I idea of format for a 23.5 by 15 cm novel. Nora Roberts kind of size. Could you confirm proper industry size? I have margins currently at 2.54 top and bottom, inside 2.3 and outside at 1.9. I know the inside and outside sound ass about but it is the only way I can get my opening page lined up so spine is the bigger margin. ??? I am trying to keep page numbers down and it looks okay on the eye, although there are more than normal words on a page and font is 11 tnr.
        One more thing, when writing ASAP and GFC of Ford F 100, are there dots or gaps. Yes I am that dumb! He he.

  27. Very helpful! Thank you.

  28. Kim says:

    I requested a comment on using famous writers quotes; Shakespeare and Banjo Patterson – at the beginning of a novel, pre story. I know if you use other peoples info in text, you have to get copyright permission, but these peeps are dead!

  29. Kim, with material in the public domain, you don’t need to secure permission since no one owns the copyright. Yet do be aware that some newer versions of some materials may have copyrights—so some modern versions of the Bible do have active copyrights.

    For works in the public domain, include author name and title of the source if it’s not just a general quote.

  30. Patrick says:

    I have a question that I can’t seem to find the answer to, and that was not mentioned in this article. Can you/should you italicize quotes?

    • Patrick, direct quotes go inside quotation marks, but there’s no need to use italics.

      That’s the basic answer, yet you might be thinking of some example in particular. If so, let me know.

      Two examples of the basic rule—

      I’d been walking along the shore, nicely alone, when a couple of teen girls came jogging up the beach. One said, “And my parents said I couldn’t go unless I aced both exams and finished in the top three in this weekend’s meet.”


      Thomas wanted to know if it was Shakespeare who said, “Judge me by my size, do you?”


      I hope that helps.

      • Patrick says:

        I wasn’t actually talking about a quote within a sentence or paragraph. I’m talking about an actual quote from somebody. For example: “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones” -Albert Einstein. Would it be wrong to italicize a quote like that?

        Thanks for the reply,

        • Okay, so you’re using the quote at the beginning of a book or chapter, something like that? An epigraph? In that case, the choice is solely up to you. Italics or roman, either is acceptable. Just be consistent if you include multiple quotations.

          You’ll likely also want to center the text.

          And no quotation marks are necessary.

          • Patrick says:

            It’s actually not for anything formal at all; it’s for a forum signature. I just wanted it to be correct. Again, I really appreciate you taking the time to answer my question.

            Thanks for your help,

  31. Patrick, you’re welcome. For something like that, you definitely have a style choice.

  32. Hi Beth, Thank you very much for your article. It is very useful, and even more for a foreigner like me (I’m French). I wrote a novel in my language and since last September, I have been working on its translation in English. The second part of the story is taking place in England and the main characters are French. When they speak to each other, they use a mixture of French and English words. I decided to italicise the English words. Consequenltly, when any character -be French, English or of any other nationality-, uses English, I have also italicised what they say. Is there a rule for that particular situation ?
    Also some characters who are not French use French when they speak. Should it be italicised ? Merci for your help. Vincent

    • Vincent, if you’ve written the story in French, then anything in English should be written in italics. There are exceptions for common English words that anyone would know; don’t italicize English words that would be known to your French-speaking audience.

      On the other hand, you don’t want too much to be italicized. Are there long sections in English? If your audience is French, I wouldn’t include too much in English. You don’t want to lose your readers. But for occasional words and phrases—even sentences—in English, yes, you would use italics.

      No, don’t use italics for those who are not French but speak French. The italics use is for your readers—it identifies words in a foreign language, which in your book means a language other than French.

      Does that answer both your concerns? Do italicize words in what is not the primary language of your story. But try not to have too many of such words in your story. You don’t want readers unable to read what’s going on.

      • Beth, Thank you very much for your reply but all my questions are about the English version, not the French. Sorry if I was not clear in my previous message and merci encore. Vincent

        • Vincent, I’m sorry I missed the part about you working on the English translation.

          In that case, you want to italicize the French but not the English. So italicize any words not in the major language of the story. It doesn’t matter who is speaking them—if words are in a language other than the story’s main language, they are italicized. (Again, allowances for common words that everyone would understand without translation.) This is a cue for the reader and has nothing to do with character. Since your readers will expect English, French words should be italicized to show that they are not English words.

          Again, you wouldn’t want to include too many passages in French since you can’t expect your readers to understand that language and you don’t want them to miss vital information. If you want to show characters speaking a language other than the main language the story is written in and need to convey what they are saying, put the scene in the viewpoint of one of the characters who is speaking and try something like this—

          Charles and Marc switched over to French when Billy entered the room. Not to intentionally keep the information from him, but he was a gossip. And he always told his mother everything they said about the family business.


          After including something like that paragraph, you can still report the dialogue in English, but readers will assume they’re speaking French. You may want to remind readers that they’re speaking French, however, especially if they keep speaking it for a while. And you should let the readers know when they switch to English.

          I hope this information better fits your circumstances.

  33. Bria says:

    Thank you so much for all the information. What a service this is. My question is not for fiction, it’s for a blog I am putting together. (Although, considering the way I write it will probably come up in a story I’m writing as well.) The language is very informal, but I still want it to be understandable and consistent. I was using common phrases in a sentence. For instance: She’s a live and let live kind of girl. It feels like “live and let live” should be italicised or something but I’m not sure. I’m sure it is technically incorrect but it seems understandable. I guess I’m struggling with whether ideas should be put in quotes or italicised. Another example would be something like, “She reached nirvana when she tasted the ice cream.” I hope that makes sense. Thanks, again.

    • Bria, your instincts are right on.

      Your first example can be written a couple of ways.

      She’s a live-and-let-live kind of girl.

      She’s a live and let live kind of girl.

      The hyphens are preferable; we typically hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun. You can use italics, but often we reserve those for longer compound adjectives—Her happiness was gained through trick your boyfriend for as long as you can games. Yet even for something such as this sentence, the hyphens would work.

      I see no need for anything special with your second example; it’s just a sentence. What were you thinking needed emphasis?

  34. Regarding italics and a character’s thoughts in novels, the distinction needs to be made between verbatim thoughts and the narrative rambling of a close third POV. If the narrator is speaking to himself using a conversational format, i.e., addressing the reader/himself in thought, that text is italicized. Too many writers get the general advice to italicize a narrator’s thoughts resulting in what becomes meaningless punctuation that’s difficult to read.

    • Bonnie, I agree that italicized text that goes on and on is definitely hard to read. And there’s no reason to include too much of it. There are options for working around the need for italicized text.


      While writers can use italics for thoughts directed from a character to himself, italics are not a requirement for that format. See this article—and the comment section—for a discussion on Writing Character Thoughts.

  35. CJ England says:

    Let me first say thank you. Your blog has been invaluable.

    A quick question. In one of my stories, I have a ship named The Lucky Lady. I know, according to this blog, the name would be in italics.

    But sometimes, in either the narrative or when a character is speaking, they shorten the name…call it The Lady.

    My question is, do the same rules apply when that is done? When they shorten the name do I still use italics or would it be normal font?

    Thanks in advance.

    • I’m glad the blog has been useful, CJ.

      Yes, use italics even when a character shortens the name of a ship. Do the same for other titles. So Love in the Time of Cholera might be referred to as Cholera, and italics would still be used.

      A great question. I may edit the article to address the issue.

  36. CJ says:

    Hi again,

    Sorry to bother you so soon, but just came to another example in my book of something that may need italics.

    T-shirts. :-) I mean when you have a character in a story wearing a T-shirt with a caption on it, is that caption italicized or in quotes? For example…

    Once properly clothed in a pair of gray sweat pants and T-shirt that read, “Are You Feeling Lucky?” he carried her out to the bed and wrapped her in some blankets.

    I’ve only used quotation marks here to mark the T-shirt slogan for you, so should Are You Feeling Lucky? be in italics instead? Or written as is?

    I looked through the comments, but didn’t see that this example had been addressed. Thanks again for the help.

    • CJ, for this one, you have options.

      The Chicago Manual of Style advises that we capitalize words from (common) signs and mottoes used in running text if the phrase is short—no italics and no quotation marks. But CMOS does recommend quotation marks for longer messages. And you could argue that a T-shirt is a sign of a sort.

      Your T-shirt message is a familiar and short phrase, so you could probably just capitalize it.

      However, a quick check of a handful of newspapers shows that they all use quotation marks for the text of a T-shirt. So if you do use quotation marks, that wouldn’t be considered wrong. Yet if you do go with the quotation marks, you don’t need to capitalize every word. Capitalize only the first word.

      Adding weight to the recommendation to use quotation marks is the way the T-shirt’s message is introduced. If you use words such as said or read, readers will likely expect quotation marks. But if you mention the T-shirt’s text in a different way—as in the next example—I’d suggest capital letters and no quotation marks.

      His faded T-shirt featured the familiar phrase Are You Feeling Lucky.

      Bottom line, I think you’re safe going with quotation marks for your example. (Remember to capitalize just the first word.)

  37. Ryan says:

    Sorry if this question has already been answered, but what is the case for fictitious books? For example, in Markus Zusak’s The Book Thief (imagine that that title is italicized), one of the characters, Max Vandenburg, creates several books that do not exist in real life, one of which is called The Standover Man. Would I italicize the title of that book in my essay? If not, how should I format it?

  38. Cassie says:

    Beth, I always check your blog when I have questions. It’s a wonderful service! My question concerns this sentence:

    They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise with a tale of two cities.

    Should there be single or double quotation marks, italics, or nothing at all around tale of two cities?

    Thanks so much!

    • Thanks, Cassie. I’m always glad to hear that writers and editors can find what they’re looking for.

      I’m assuming your intent is to refer to the book? If so, you need capital letters and italics.

      They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise with A Tale of Two Cities.


      If you don’t intend to reference the book directly—perhaps the character wanted to use the title for a play on words—then you’d approach this differently. But if you did intend a play on words, you’d change the title in some way.

      Let me know if that didn’t answer the question for you.

  39. Cassie says:

    Beth, thanks so much for answering so quickly! I truly appreciate it. Yes, the character is referring to the book title. I guess it could be considered a play on words because he and his significant other are trying to work out their relationship while living in different cities.

    In that case, would it still need caps and italics? I’m always flummoxed about this subject.

    Again, thanks so very much for taking the time to answer!

    • Cassie, if he’s actually referring to the book itself, with something like this next example, you do need capital letters and italics—

      They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise by making them play out A Tale of Two Cities.

      For a play on the title (which sounds more like what you have in mind), you wouldn’t use the title directly and therefore wouldn’t need caps or italics.

      You’d want the reference close enough to the original to be recognizable but different enough to fit your scene’s context.

      They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise by dwelling on their own sad tales of two very distant cities.


      Does that settle the issue for you? You can refer to exact titles, so don’t feel that you can’t. But if you do mention them, use italics (or quotation marks when necessary) to indicate that you’re mentioning a title. Otherwise make the reference different enough that you’re not just using the title’s words without the proper punctuation and capital letters.

  40. Lou Sanders says:

    I know you’ll tell me to recast—but I can’t. Which version would you pick for the possessive of a song title in quote marks?

    “I Want To Hold Your Hand’s” lyrics…
    “I Want To Hold Your Hand”‘s lyrics…
    “I Want To Hold Your Hand” ‘s lyrics…

    Again, I’m not permitted to recast—so which is the most viable alternative here? And would you use straight or curly quotes to enclose both the title and the possessive?

    Thank you kindly.

    • Lou, are you sure you can’t rewrite? That’s the best option. If you truly can’t, go with your third choice, with the apostrophe and s outside the quotation marks. (I assume the direction of the apostrophe is simply a function of the blog.)

      I’ve not seen that anyone expressly suggests using the space between the double quotation mark and the apostrophe for this purpose, yet I suggest it for ease of reading. But use a thin space if you can.

      And use curly quotes (for most purposes). You might use straight quotes in an e-mail.

  41. Lou Sanders says:

    Chicago 16 doesn’t specifically address this. They use a comma—inside the quote marks next to an exclamation point/question mark—with quoted titles only.

    Are these correct?

    When Jill screamed, “Help!” the neighbors called 911.

    When Frank asked, “Where’s the keg?” his wife said that his friend drank it all.

    The weekly periodical, “How Do We Invest In the Future?,” is very popular. (Comma goes inside the ending quote because a title of a work is being referenced, correct?)

    I say no commas in these, correct?

    The questions “Who?” “What?” “When?” “Where” and “Why?” remain unanswered. (No commas, I say.)

    I resented her “How old are you?” “Are you married?” and “Are you interested in a fling?” questions. (No commas, I say.)

    Thank you, Beth!

    • Lou, there are a couple of issues and options here. Let’s do these one issue at a time. (I’m answering for you as well as for others who might read this, so I’ll go into a bit of detail.)


      The weekly periodical, “How Do We Invest In the Future?,” is very popular.

      Yes, the comma goes inside the quotation marks and after the question mark because the question mark is part of the periodical’s title. The comma is still necessary in this case because the question mark is not replacing it. The question mark isn’t part of the sentence’s punctuation; it’s simply part of the title being quoted. So the sentence still requires its normal punctuation. The same would hold true for an exclamation point that was part of a title being quoted.


      As you said, CMOS doesn’t address the next issue, although it’s similar to the first. The Copyeditor’s Handbook does address the issue.

      Although we typically only use one punctuation mark in most places—for example, question marks and exclamation points often replace the comma or period—for clarity we can use multiple marks. This would be rare, but as we saw with the first example, sometimes there are instances when the two marks are both necessary.

      The Copyeditor’s Handbook (in the section on strong and weak punctuation marks in the punctuation chapter) would say that the first of the next three examples is incorrect. Their recommendation seems to be for option #2, although in a footnote they admit that some authors and editors would decide to put the comma inside the quotation mark, as in option #3. Four and five are valid options as well. (For British English rules, choose option #2.)

      #1 When Jill screamed, “Help!” the neighbors called 911.

      #2 When Jill screamed, “Help!”, the neighbors called 911.

      #3 When Jill screamed, “Help!,” the neighbors called 911.

      #4 When Jill screamed, “Help,” the neighbors called 911.

      #5 When Jill screamed for help, the neighbors called 911.


      The same options would hold true for Frank and his keg. Change option #1 to one of the others. (Remember to be consistent with your choice throughout a manuscript or project.)

      #1 When Frank asked, “Where’s the keg?” his wife said that his friend drank it all. X

      #2 When Frank asked, “Where’s the keg?”, his wife said that his friend drank it all.

      #3 When Frank asked, “Where’s the keg?,” his wife said that his friend drank it all.

      #4 When Frank asked where the keg was, his wife said that his friend drank it all.

      #5 His wife said that his friend drank it all when Frank asked, “Where’s the keg?”


      For the final two examples, you can probably see why a better choice would be the inclusion of commas for clarity. Just as in the earlier examples, commas would help the reader make sense of what he’s reading.

      However, you do create another mess when you add commas (whether inside or outside the quotation marks). That’s a lot of punctuation to deal with in these sentences. Still, the best choice, in terms of clarity, is to include commas.

      #1 The questions “Who?,” “What?,” “When?,” “Where?,” and “Why?” remain unanswered.

      #2 The questions “Who?”, “What?”, “When?”, “Where?”, and “Why?” remain unanswered.

      But the choice of including a comma is only the best choice if you don’t make other changes. And other changes would definitely be an even better option, at least for these two examples.

      I wanted to share the information about including commas in such situations, yet I wouldn’t use quotation marks for the first sentence, and I wouldn’t use question marks for the second. I’d actually try to eliminate both for each sentence, although that’s not the only option.

      A couple of options—

      The questions who, what, when, where, and why remain unanswered.

      My questions—who, what, when, where, and why—remain unanswered.

      The ever-popular questions of who, what, when, where, and why remain unanswered.


      I resented her questions: “How old are you?”, “Are you married?”, and “Are you interested in a fling?”

      I resented her questions: “How old are you?,” “Are you married?,” and “Are you interested in a fling?”

      I resented her how old are you, are you married, and are you interested in a fling questions.

      I resented her how-old-are-you, are-you-married, and are-you-interested-in-a-fling questions.


      That was a lot to cover. Let me know if I missed something or was unclear.

  42. Cassie says:

    *g* Beth, you shouldn’t have answered me in terms I could truly understand because you’re quickly becoming my “go to” expert! With that admittance, I have another question about the following sentence:

    But his emptiness was so pervasive, he gave the muse idea serious consideration when he looked at his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless.

    If I were to change “he gave the muse” to “he had to give the muse,” would it be grammatically correct? My confusion lies in the use of simple past vs an infinitive. Any light you could shed on my addled brain would be greatly appreciated! Thanks, Beth!

    • Cassie, either option is correct.

      The second gives the reader more insight into the character’s thoughts and/or puts more emphasis on his reason for giving the muse idea consideration. The first option is more a statement of fact.

      An option for tweaking each—

      But his emptiness was so pervasive, he actually gave the muse idea serious consideration as he studied his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless.

      But his emptiness was so pervasive, he had to give the muse idea serious consideration after he evaluated his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless.


      Does that help?

      • Cassie says:

        Thank you, Beth! Yes, you’ve definitely helped! I’m going for “more insight into the character’s thoughts.” I appreciate your taking the time to answer me!

  43. Mara says:

    Hi what about names of buildings, but I have made up the names. This is for a building project brochure. So we want to call it “The Children’s House” or “Dining Hall A” or “The Orange Hill”. These names are used many times throughout the brochure. Italics, quotes? Or quote it once and then every other time just plain caps?

    • Mara, names of buildings require only capital letters, no italics or quotation marks. When used in a caption (under a photo or illustration, for example), capitalize all the words in the name, including the article—The Children’s House and The Orange Hill. When you use the name in running text—Building begins on the Children’s House in December—don’t capitalize the the.

  44. Denise Lasky says:

    Hi, Beth,

    None of the top-gun style guide address these. With the approaching holidays I’d like to know which words to correctly capitalize. What is the technically correct capitalization rule for each, please?

    Should “Merry” in “Merry Christmas” and “Happy New Year” be capped below? If not, how would you punctuate this exact sentence?

    Have a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

    Hope you have a great New Year!
    Cap “New Year”?


    Have a Happy Thanksgiving!
    Cap “Happy”?

    A Happy Anniversary to the both of you.
    Cap ” Happy” and “Anniversary” here?

    Happy Birthday, Michael!
    Have a Happy Birthday, Michael!
    Cap “Birthday” in the first and “Happy Birthday” in the second?

    Have a Happy Thanksgiving!
    Cap “Happy”?

    Thank you so much!

    • Denise, perfect questions for a topic I’ve not addressed here at the blog.

      Names of holidays (religious and secular) are capitalized. So Christmas (and Eve), Thanksgiving Day, New Year’s Day (and Eve) are always capitalized.

      The words happy, merry, birthday, and anniversary are not capped in running text (although we often capitalize such words in headings.

      Do capitalize these words at the beginnings of sentences, as usual.

      Have a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. (But—I hope the new year is a happy one for you.)

      I hope you have a great new year. (No caps here. This is referring to the year, not to the holiday.)

      Have a happy Thanksgiving.

      A happy anniversary to . . .

      Happy birthday, Michael.

      Have a happy birthday . . .

      Have a happy Thanksgiving.

      Happy holidays to you and yours.

      Season’s greeting to you all.


      This really is a great topic (and there’s lots more to cover). I guess this calls for a full article. Thanks for the tip.

      • Denise Lasky says:

        This blog of yours is just unbelievably great! I’ve never seen anything quite like this. Am I dreaming?? This site is better than the top style guides, and I mean that. You’re awesome, Beth! Great, great work. You should be very proud!!!

  45. Erin says:

    Hi Beth,

    Thanks so much for this post, I am currently studying for a Graduate Certificate in Editing and Publishing and found this immensely helpful!

    I have a question, if you don’t mind, about a passage I’m currently editing. You said in your post that for songs, the CD or album title would be in italics and the song names would be in quotation marks. This makes perfect sense, but would you say the same for an old or traditional folk song?

    Here is the sentence:

    “But when his voice, ripe and full and strong, lofted “Macushla” and “Mother Machree” to the soaring roof of the hired theatre, that stunning opposition of school shirt and matinee idol voice had the crowd cheering and pulping their palms.”

    Would you say that the quotations marks are correct here? My understanding is that these are titles of Irish folk songs, and as such, don’t belong to a larger group like an album. Should they be italicised instead?

    Thanks very much!

  46. Denise Lasky says:


    He received two As on his report card. (Chicago prefers this.)

    Would the reader momentarily stumble and construe As as the word “as”?

    Is this clearer to the reader in your opinion?

    He received two A’s on his report card.

    Which would you go with?


    He received two A’s, three Bs, and two Cs on his report card. (Could this work, or is it a no-no?)

    Which would Beth Hill personally use—As or A’s in all the examples above?

    Thank you.

    PS This is the greatest reference source available anywhere on the Net or in any bookstore! You are to be commended! Awesome, awesome, awesome site!

    • Denise, you hit on one of the contentious ones.

      Chicago does recommend As, but I think it’s clearer with the apostrophe, A’s. Used alone—I got all A’s—I’d definitely go with the apostrophe.

      Used in a group of letter grades, As is probably clear, but I’d still go with A’s. Then readers don’t have to guess or hesitate. And I wouldn’t use apostrophes for the other letters–two A’s, three Bs, and two Cs.

      I’m sure you’ve seen lots of different possibilities for this one. But there are already allowances, so why not include this one?


      I’m glad you like the site. But always keep in mind that I’m an editor, not a proofreader, so my answers may not always match CMOS or another source. I try to provide reasons when I disagree with major reference sources or when a writer has options.

  47. Denise Lasky says:

    CMOS 16 says that PS (for [i]postscriptum[/I]) has no periods. So if I were to use PS, is there any punctuation (i.e., a period or a colon) that should follow?

    1. PS Keep up the great work!
    2. PS: Keep up the great work!
    3. PS. Keep up the great work!

    Per Chicago, do you think that 1, 2, or 3 is correct?

    Thanks again!

    • Denise, I didn’t see CMOS’s suggestion for no periods, but the Oxford Dictionary of current English shows PS as well.

      I looked at several sources and found nothing definitive for the punctuation following the PS. A period or a colon should be acceptable. (And both options were given as options from the Gregg Reference Manual in one resource I found.)

      In several questions directed to the CMOS folks online, they use the format P.S. Text, text, text in their answers. (Admittedly, those answers may be older, from the days before P.S. became PS.)

      I may check another source or two—I’m more than curious that this doesn’t seem to be addressed in many places.

      But you should be fine with the period or the colon following PS. Or you could revert to P.S. and follow it with your postscript sentence.

  48. Denise Lasky says:

    How do you create italics on your website? It didn’t work in the post above. Lol.

  49. Ben Jones says:


    If I have an italicized place name that includes “The” at the beginning (I know I shouldn’t but lets just say for arguments sake that I have) do I always have to italicize the “The” part?


    • Ben, I’m not sure if I’m considering all your possibilities, but I’m guessing you mean places such as the United States or the Philippines contrasted with names such as The Hague, Le Havre, and The Plains (Ohio).

      If you had to italicize the place names, as I did here, italicize the word the in names that capitalize the the.

      Is that what you’re getting at? If not, let me know.

  50. Diane says:

    Thanks for your great website!

    I’m going back on forth on the punctuation of the last name in this sentence: She picked up the envelope marked Jamison that sat on her desk. My latest thought is that Chicago 7.58 applies here. It says that proper nouns used as words are usually set in roman (as opposed to words used as words, which are italicized or enclosed in quotation marks). What do you think?


    PS Do you have an idea of when your new book will be out in print format?

    • Diane says:

      Oops, typing too fast! Meant “back and forth.”

    • Diane, I don’t think that Jamison is being used as a word here. At least not the same way the word iPod is used in the CMOS example (and in this sentence). Yet that’s just my opinion.

      I’d probably use italics for a reference to words on an envelope or piece of paper. Maybe quotation marks if the wording was different, if the sentence included said or write.

      —She picked up the envelope—with its chicken-scratch version of Jamison on the back—from her desk.

      Like you, I go back and forth with the options. But sometimes the rest of the sentence guides the choice.

      The book is being formatted. I’ll let everyone know when it’s coming as soon as I have a date.

  51. Denise Lasky says:

    Thank you for all that you do for us!!! :-)

  52. Melissa says:

    How would you use quotations in an author’s thoughts to herself. Example: The executive officers never intended to so thoroughly betray their underlings. “Or do they?” I would often ask myself.

  53. brianna says:

    Do italicize the names of specific Disney attractions?
    For example, do I italicize The Festival of Fantasy Parade?

    • A great question, Brianna. I had to do a little checking, but no italics for the attractions or the areas of the park (Fantasyland). Just capitalize the names of the attractions.

      If you refer to a movie or book title on which a ride is based, be sure to use italics for the movie or book reference.

  54. Nicky says:

    How do you list TV shows and episodes on social media where you can’t use italics and bold?

    • Nicky, definitely capitalize them, both the names of the shows and the names of the episodes. Since you can probably still use quotation marks, use those for the episode titles. You might have to go with only caps for the show titles.

      This is CMOS’s response when asked about the inability to use italics on social media—Capitalization, Titles.

      This was Grammar Girl Mignon Fogarty’s solution—Formatting Titles on Twitter and Facebook.

      I’m thinking that all caps might be the best solution if you show both a show title and episode titles, simply to differentiate them. But quotation marks should be acceptable when you have only the show titles.

      A great question. Maybe others will contribute their solutions.

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